Chủ Nhật, 2 tháng 1, 2011

analog system


Audio Analyzer
SR1 — 200 kHz dual-domain audio analyzer
  • ≤-112 dB THD+N (analog system at 1 kHz, 20 kHz BW)
  • 200 kHz (signal generation & measurements including FFTs)
  • ≤-118 dBu analog analyzer noise ( 20 kHz BW)
  • ±0.008 dB flatness (analog system, 20 Hz to 20 kHz)
  • Low Crosstalk ( ≤-140 dB analog inputs)
  • ≤600 ps jitter (50 Hz to 100 kHz)
  • Dual-Channel FFTs

SR1 Dual-Domain Audio Analyzer is a stand-alone instrument that delivers cutting edge performance in a wide variety of audio measurements. With a versatile high-performance generator, an array of analyzers that operate symmetrically in both the analog and digital domains, and digital audio carrier measurements at sampling rates up to 192 kHz, SR1 is the right choice for the most demanding analog and digital audio applications.
User Interface
SR1 uses an integrated computer running the Windows XP embedded operating system, so operation will be immediately familiar and intuitive. Depending on the application, SR1 can be operated with an external mouse and keyboard, or by using the front-panel knob, keypad and touchpad.
Seven on-screen tabbed pages are available for arranging panels, graphs, and displays. Screen setups, data, and instrument configurations can be quickly saved and recalled to either the internal hard disk or to a flash drive connected to one of the two front-panel USB connectors. An optional 1024 x 768 XVGA monitor (opt. 02) provides better resolution and allows more information to be displayed.
While SR1’s configuration panels offer total flexibility in setting up every detail of the analyzer, at times it is useful to get a measurement going quickly, without worrying about infrequently used parameters. That’s where QuickMeas comes in. QuickMeas gives SR1 users the ability to get up and running on many common audio measurements such as Level, SNR, Frequency Response, and Crosstalk after answering just a few simple questions about the inputs and outputs of the DUT. When the measurements are finished, the results are available in a clear, easy-to-understand report.

Analog Signal Generator
At the heart of SR1 is a uniquely flexible analog signal generator. All of the standard audio waveforms are available including sine, log-swept sine chirp, synchronous burst sine, noise (white, pink, and filtered), standard intermodulation test signals (SMPTE, CCIF, DIM), square waves, arbitrary waveforms (ASCII and .WAV), ramps and multitone waveforms. Many of these signals can be combined in the generator allowing you to create an unlimited number of test waveforms.
But the analog signal generator doesn’t sacrifice performance for flexibility. With a flatness of ±0.008 dB (20 Hz to 20 kHz) and a residual THD+N of -106 dB (20 Hz to 20 kHz), SR1’s Low Distortion Sine rivals the performance of any analyzer.
Multitone waveforms with up to 50 tones, each adjustable in frequency, amplitude, and phase are calculated and loaded in real-time, without having to run a cumbersome off-line program to generate arbitrary waveform tables. A convenient FFT Chirp waveform is automatically synchronized to the FFT analyzer allowing instant FFT measurements of frequency response (magnitude and phase).

Digital Audio Signal Generator
The same flexibility and performance is found in SR1’s digital audio signal generator. Almost all the same waveforms found in the analog generator are available in the digital generator with the addition of several special digital test waveforms including digital constant, walking bits, and a staircase waveform (for D/A testing).
The digital audio output sampling rate is continuously adjustable from 24 kHz to 216 kHz (single and dual connector). Full control over transmitted status bits (in both professional and consumer formats), user bits, and validity bits, is provided.
For digital interface testing, a variety of impairment signals can be imposed on the digital audio carrier. Carrier impairments include variable rise time (5 ns to 400 ns), common mode sine waves, normal mode noise, and several jitter waveforms (sine, square, and noise).
All of SR1’s sampling clocks are derived from an internal timebase with 5 ppm accuracy. For the most demanding applications, an optional atomic rubidium (FS725) timebase is available with an accuracy at shipment is ±5 x 10-11, and a 20-year aging specification of less than 5 ppb. Additionally, the timebase may be synchronized to an external clock, an AES11 reference signal, or any standard video signal.
The heart of SR1’s measurement abilities is its versatile set of analyzers which operate symmetrically on both analog and digital audio signals with no need to purchase additional options. Up to two analyzers can be run simultaneously on either the analog or
digital inputs.
The Time Domain Detector makes all of the standard audio measurements including Amplitude, Crosstalk, and THD+N. Continuously variable bandwidth limiting and standard weighting filters are included. The post notch-filter distortion signal can be fed to an FFT analyzer for a live spectral display of distortion, or to the rear-panel monitor output or speaker.
The Single-Channel FFT and Dual-Channel FFT Analyzers offer live spectral displays with full zoom and heterodyne capability. The full resolution of the analyzer can be applied to any frequency range down to 1/512th of the full measurement bandwidth, leading to an effective resolution of 16M FFT lines. Several averaging algorithms can be applied to bring out low level signals.
The two-channel FFT analyzer offers true single-shot frequency response measurements for the ultimate in accuracy. SR1 also has a complete set of impulse response measurements including impulse response, quasi-anechoic frequency response, and energy time-. curve. Since SR1 is a true two-channel FFT, it isn't limited to MLS waveforms, but can use virtually any waveform.

The THD Analyzer makes frequency selective THD measurements on two user-selectable sets of up to 13 harmonics of the input signal.
The IMD Analyzer makes standard audio distortion measurements including SMPTE, CCIF, and DIM. Frequency selective analysis ensures high measurement accuracy.
The Histogram Analyzer displays live histograms of input signal amplitudes and probability distributions. Realtime fits to Gaussian distributions can be generated.
The Multitone Analyzer, in combination with the Multitone Generator, can be configured to make fast single-shot measurements of a variety of audio parameters including Level, Frequency Response, THD+N, THD Total Distortion, Noise, Crosstalk, and IMD.
DIgital Audio Interface Measurements
SR1 provides a complete set of measurements for digital interface testing. Carrier level and sampling frequency are measured directly. Status bits are fully decoded in both professional and consumer formats, and user bits are displayed as well. SR1’s Jitter Analyzer measures jitter in both the time and frequency domain, including continuously variable bandwidth limiting and weighting in both domains. For frequency domain measurements, live zoomable and heterodyned spectral displays of jitter are available. With a residual jitter of only 600 ps, the performance of SR1’s jitter analyzer is unbeatable.
An optional 80 MHz transient digitizer (opt. 01) provides additional digital audio carrier analysis. Operating on a record of up to 2M samples, the digitizer computes and displays the time record of the input signal and its jitter, input spectrum, jitter spectrum, and the probability distributions of the input and jitter amplitudes as well as the pulse width and pulse rate. Full color eye-diagrams can be generated allowing easy testing against user-configurable eye limits.
Automation and Programming
SR1 offers unprecedented flexibility for user scripting and remote programming. On-board scripts can be written in VBScript, Jscript, or Python with full access to all of the instrument’s capabilities as well as the ability to create simple user-interfaces for running tests. SR1 has a complete hierarchical GPIB command set, and GPIB commands can be sent over the standard IEE-488 interface, RS-232 port, or over the Ethernet on a TCP/IP network (VXI-11). Finally, SR1 has a complete COM interface allowing instrument operation to be automated from any COM capable application such as Visual Basic, LabView, or Microsoft Office.

Analog Signal Generator
General Characteristics

Amplitude Range (rms) 1 µV to 28.3 V (balanced)
1 µV to 14.1 V (unbalanced)
Amplitude Accuracy ±0.5 % (±0.043 dB) at 1 kHz
Frequency Range  
     Hi BW DAC 10 Hz to 200 kHz
     Hi Res DAC 10 Hz to 0.45Fs (Fs: 128 kHz or
64 kHz fixed, 24 kHz to 216 kHz adj.)
Frequency Accuracy ±0.0005 % (5 ppm)
Frequency Resolution 24
Output Configuration Balanced Ground, Balanced Float, Unbalanced Ground, Unbalanced Float, Common Mode Test

Source Impedance 50 Ω, 150 Ω, 600 Ω (balanced)
25 Ω, 75 Ω, 600 Ω (unbalanced)
Max. Power (600 Ω load)  
     Balanced 30.5 dBm
     Unbalanced 24.9 dBm
Float Voltage ±40 V
     10 Hz to 20 kHz -125 dB
     >20 kHz -100 dB
Low Distortion sine (Hi BW DAC)  
     20 Hz to 20 kHz ±0.020 dB (typ. ±0.012 dB)
     10 Hz to 64 kHz ±0.025 dB
     10 Hz to 200 kHz ±0.05 dB
Residual THD+N (Hi BW DAC)  
     1 kHz, 4 Vrms -112 dB (22 kHz BW)
     20 Hz to 20 kHz -106 dB + 1 µV (22 kHz BW)
  -100.5 dB + 1.7 µV (80 kHz BW)
  -97 dB + 2.5 µV (200 kHz BW)
     10 Hz to 100 kHz -89 dB + 2.5 µV (200 kHz BW)
Residual THD+N (Hi Res DAC, Fs = 128 kHz)  
     1 kHz, 4 Vrms -112 dB (22 kHz BW)
     20 Hz to 20 kHz -106 dB + 1 µV (22 kHz BW)
     20 Hz to 57.6 kHz -102 dB + 1.4 µV (57.6 kHz BW)
Residual THD+N (Hi Res DAC, Fs = 64 kHz)  
     1 kHz, 4 Vrms -112 dB (22 kHz BW)
     20 Hz to 20 kHz -106 dB + 1 µV (22 kHz BW)
Regular Sine
Flatness (rel. to 1 kHz, amplitude ≤4 Vrms)  
     20 Hz to 20 kHz ±0.008 dB (typ. ±0.003 dB)
     10 kHz to 64 kHz ±0.02 dB
     10 Hz to 200 kHz ±0.03 dB
Residual THD + N (Hi BW DAC)  
     1 kHz -86 dB (22 kHz BW)
     22 Hz to 20 kHz -85 dB + 1 µV (22 kHz BW)
  -84.5 dB + 1.7 µV (80 kHz BW)
  -82 dB + 2.5 µV (200 kHz BW)
     10 Hz to 100 kHz -77 dB + 2.5 µV (200 kHz BW)
Residual THD+N (Hi Res DAC, Fs = 128 kHz)  
     1 kHz -99 dB (22 kHz BW)
     22 Hz to 20 kHz -98 dB + 1 µV (22 kHz BW)
     20 Hz to 57.6 kHz -96.5 dB + 1.4 µV (57.6 kHz BW)
Residual THD+N (Hi Res DAC, Fs = 64 kHz)  
     1 kHz -106 dB (22 kHz BW)
     22 Hz to 20 kHz -101 dB + 1 µV (22 kHz BW)
Phased Sines 0 to 360°, 0.001° resolution
Noise White, Pink, Filtered White/Pink, USASI
Multitone 1 to 50 tones
MLS Repetition rates from 28 to 220
FFT Chirp Equal power in each FFT bin
Log-swept sine chirp Swept-sine with log increasing frequencies
Square 10 Hz to 50 kHz frequency range
Ramp Fs/N frequency range (N≥20)
Arbitrary 256 Samples to 136k Samples
Polarity 10 Hz to Fs/4 frequency range
Constant (Offset) DC to 20 Vp (unbal) / 40 Vp (bal)
Burst Types Timed, externally triggered, externally gated, synchronous sine, shaped
Digital Audio Signal Generator
Digital Audio Carrier Characteristics
Output Amplitude  
          Range 16 mV to 10.2 V (110 Ω load)
          Accuracy ±10 % + 80 mV
          Range 4 mV to 2.55 V (75 Ω load)
          Accuracy ±10 % + 20 mV
Output Format Balanced XLR (AES/EBU), dual-connector XLR, unbalanced BNC (SPDIF-EIAJ),dual-connector BNC, Optical (Toslink)
Output Sample Rate 24 kHz to 216 kHz
Sample Rate Accuracy ±5 ppm
Output Impedance 110 Ω (balanced), 75 Ω (unbalanced)
Digital Audio Waveforms
Frequency Range 10 Hz to Fs/2
Frequency Resolution 24
Flatness ±0.001 dB
Harmonic/Spurious -148 dB.
Phased Sine 0 to 360° range, 0.01° resolution
Square 10 Hz to Fs/2 frequency range
Noise White, Pink, Filtered White/Pink, USASI
MLS Repetition rates from 28 to 220
Ramp Fs/N frequency range (N≥20), adjustable rise/fall fraction
Arbitrary 256 Samples to 136k Samples
FFT Chirp Equal power in each FFT bin. Frequency response can be modified with an EQ file.
Log-swept sine chirp Swept-sine with log increasing frequencies
Polarity 10 Hz to Fs/4 frequency range
Burst waveforms All allowed waveforms
Burst types Timed
Dither None, triangle and rectangular probability distribution
Digital Audio Carrier Impairments
Waveforms Sine, square, uniform noise, BP filtered noise, chirp
Frequency Range 2 Hz to 200 kHz
Amplitude Range 0 UI to 13 UI
Normal Mode Noise  
Amplitude Range  
     Unbalanced 0 to 637 mVpp
     Balanced 0 to 2.55 Vpp
Common Mode Sine  
Amplitude Range 0 to 20 Vpp (balanced only)
Frequency Range 10 Hz to 100 kHz
Cable Simulation Simulates 100 m of digital audio cable
Variable Rise Time 5 ns to 400 ns
Signal Measurements
General Analog Input Characteristics
Amplitude Range (rms) 62.5 mV to 160 V
Input Configuration XLR, BNC, Generator Monitor, Digital Audio Common Mode
Input Impedance  
     Balanced 200 kΩ / 95 pF
     Unbalanced 100 kΩ / 185 pF
Input Termination (bal) 300 Ω, 600 Ω, 200 kΩ
     10 Hz to 50 kHz ≤-140 dB
     >50 kHz ≤-135 dB
     Type 16-bit sigma-delta
     Sampling Frequency 512 kHz
     Frequency Range DC to 228 kHz
Hi Res ADC  
     Type 24-bit sigma-delta
     Sampling Frequency 128 kHz or 64 kHz (fixed), 24 kHz to 216 kHz (adj.)
     Frequency Range DC to 0.45Fs
General Digital Input Characteristics
Input Format Balanced XLR (AES/EBU), dual-connector XLR, unbalanced BNC (SPDIF-EIAJ), dual-connector BNC, Optical (Toslink)
Input Sample Rate 24 kHz to 216 kHz
Input Impedance Hi Z or 110 Ω (balanced)
Hi Z or 75 Ω (unbalanced)
Analog Signal Meters
RMS Level Meter  
Accuracy (1 kHz ref) ±0.5 % (±0.043 dB)
Flatness (1 kHz ref, Hi BW ADC, Fs=512 kHz)  
     20 Hz to 20 kHz <±0.008 dB (typ. <±0.003 dB)
     10 Hz to 64 kHz <±0.02 dB
     10 Hz to 200 kHz
<±0.03 dB
Frequency Meter  
Range 8 Hz to 300 kHz
Accuracy Timebase error ± (2 ppm + 10 mHz)
Phase Meter ±1.0° accuracy
Digital Signal Meters
Frequency Meter 10 Hz to 0.45Fs, ±100 ppm accuracy
Phase Meter ±0.05° accuracy
Analyzers (Analog and Digital Audio)
Time Domain Analyzer  
Measurements Amplitude, amplitude ratio, THD+N, THD+N ratio, SINAD
Analog Inputs
Amplitude Accuracy ±0.5 % (±0.043 dB)
Flatness (1 kHz ref)  
     20 Hz to 20 kHz <±0.008 dB
     20 Hz to 64 kHz <±0.02 dB
     10 Hz to 200 kHz <±0.05 dB
Residual Noise (62.5 Vrms input range, shorted input)  
     Hi Res ADC (Fs=128 kHz)  
          22 Hz to 22 kHz <-117.5 dBu
          22 kHz to 57.6 kHz <-115 dBu
          A-Weighted <-120 dBu
     Hi BW ADC  
          22 Hz to 22 kHz <-118 dBu
          22 Hz to 80 kHz <-113 dBu
          22 Hz to 200 kHz <-110 dBu
          A-Weighted <-120 dBu
Residual THD+N  
     Hi Res ADC (Fs=128 kHz)  
          1 kHz, 4 Vrms -111 dB (22 kHz BW)
          20 Hz to 20 kHz -107 dB + 0.8 µV (22 kHz BW), -101 dB + 1.3 µV (57.6 kHz BW)
     Hi Res ADC (Fs=64 kHz)  
          1 kHz, 4 Vrms -111 dB (22 kHz BW)
          20 Hz to 20 kHz -107 dB + 0.8 µV (22 kHz BW)
     Hi BW ADC  
          1 kHz -113 dB (22 kHz BW)
          20 Hz to 20 kHz -109 dB (22 kHz BW), -102 dB + 1.5 µV (80 kHz BW), -98 dB + 2.5 µV (200 kHz BW)
          10 Hz to 100 kHz -91 dB (200 kHz BW)
Digital Inputs  
Amplitude Accuracy ±0.001 dB (at 1 kHz)
Flatness ±0.001 dB (15 Hz to 22 kHz)
Residual THD+N ≤-140 dBFS
Bandwidth Limiting Filters  
     Low Pass Filter 4th order Butterworth, adj. from Fs/40 to 0.45Fs, 20 kHz, 40 kHz and 80 kHz fixed elliptical filters per AES17.
     High Pass Filter 4th order Butterworth, @22 Hz, 100 Hz, and 400 Hz. 20 kHz, 40 kHz and 80 kHz fixed elliptical filters per AES17.
     Band Pass Filter  
               Hi BW ADC 1/3 Octave, Class II (4-pole)
               Hi Res ADC 1/3, 1/6, 1/12, 1/24 Octave, Class III (6-pole)
          Tuning Range  
               Hi BW ADC 10 Hz to 200 kHz
               Hi Res ADC 10 Hz to 0.44Fs
          Tuning Accuracy ±2.5 %
          Amplitude Accuracy ±0.5 %
Notch Filter  
          Tuning Range  
               Hi BW ADC 10 Hz to 200 kHz
               Hi Res ADC 10 Hz to 0.44Fs
          Tuning Accuracy ±2.5 %
          Response -3 dB at 0.73Fc and 1.37Fc
          Amplitude Accuracy ±0.2 dB (20 Hz to 180 kHz, f<0.5f0 or f>2f0)
Weighting Filters A-wt, C-Msg wt, CCITT, CCIR (weighted, unweighted, & 2 kHz)
Optional Filters Up to 4 per channel (Hi BW only)
Detector Type RMS, Peak, Quasi-Peak (CCIR-468)
Single and Dual-Ch. FFT Analyzers  
Frequency Range  
     Hi BW ADC DC to 200 kHz
     Hi Res ADC DC to 0.45Fs
Digital Audio DC to F 2
Number of Lines 256, 512, ... 32k
Processing 40-bit floating point
Windows Blackman Harris, Enhanced Blackman Harris, Hann, Hamming, Equiripple, Flattop, Gaussian, Kaiser, Uniform, Rife Vincent 4, 5 and 10 term
Zoom Span can be narrowed by up to 512x
Heterodyne Narrowed span can be centered anywhere in the measurement range
Averaging Fixed length and continuous
Dual-Ch. Measurements Frequency response, coherence, impulse response
THD Analyzer Measures two independent sets of user-selectable harmonics (2x to 14x)
Histogram Analyzer Time vs. amplitude, Histogram, PDF, Gaussian fit to PDF
Multitone Analyzer Level, Frequency Response, THD+N, noise, THD, IMD, Crosstalk
Digital Audio Carrier Measurements
Measurements Carrier amplitude, sample rate, jitter amplitude, jitter spectrum
Sample Rate 24 kHz to 216 kHz
Sample Rate Accuracy ±5 ppm
Carrier Amplitude Measurements  
     Balanced (XLR) ±10 % + 80 mV
     Unbalanced (BNC) ±10 % + 20 mV
Optical Displays voltage of Toslink receiver
Output to Input Delay Measures delay from Digital Audio Output or AES11 reference output to Digital Audio Input
     Range -12.7 UI to +115.1 UI in seconds
     Resolution 60 ns
Residual Jitter  
     50 Hz to 100 kHz ≤600 ps
     Input Surces AES11 (24 Hz to 216 kHz), sine or TTL (8 kHz to 32 MHz), video (NTSC/PAL/SECAM)

Computer Interfaces GPIB, RS-232, Ethernet, COM
Digitizer (opt. 1)  
     Sampling Rate 80 MHz
     Acquisition Length 4k, 8k, 16k, 128k, 256k, 512k, 1M, 2M samples
     Measurements Input vs. time, jitter vs. time, input spectrum, jitter spectrum, pulse width/rate histograms, jitter probability histogram, eye diagrams
Video Out VGA output for driving external monitor
Power <250 W, 90 VACto 264 VAC, 47 Hz to 63 Hz
Dimensions 17" × 8.5 " × 20.25 " (WHD)
Weight 40 lbs.
Warranty One year parts and labor on defects in materials and workmanship

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